Table of content


Introduction

I. What is Leadership
II. Styles of Leaderhip
III. Shared Leadership in practice
IV. Different aspects of Leadership

Conclusion





external image leadership.jpg
http://www.remichadel.ch/?2008/03

Introduction


Leadership defines an individual's ability to lead other people or organizations in order to achieve certain goals. We shall then say that a leader is someone who can guide, influence and inspire.

Corporate organizations have unanimously accepted one important fact in present times: that they are quite incomplete without the strength of their teams
An effective leadership can make the best use of all talents and skills of all team members, to arrive at effective decision-making.

Business leaders face more and more important challenges. The world is changing and they must adapt to it.
Thus, the purpose of this wiki is to evaluate the latest trends in term of leadership and to measure their impact on companies.




I) What is leadership



What is leadership?
Leadership is a complex ‘phenomenon’ because it involves many things like social, personal, organisational processes. Besides this it also has to deal with groups, individuals who work together in order to achive goals. , organisation method for people to participate so that it can result in reaching the targets or goals. It is a process that also enables a person to have influence on others in order to to achieve targets. Leaders carry out these processes by leveraging their leadership traits such as values, ethics and knowledge.

Theory
In several theorys leaderhips is also described as:
  • Leadership is a process
  • Leadership involves influence
  • It appears within groups
  • There must be a goal


Another theory is from Blake and Mouton. They have developed a ‘Managerial Grid’ in which leaders can see what their style is, what is most important. On the left there is the scale of care for people, employers. On the bottom the concern for production, working is mentioned. By this leaders can recgonise their style and improve their leadership.


external image Leadership+grid+2.jpg

http://www.coachingcosmos.com/34.html

Born as a leader, or learned?
Good leaders can be born, but most leaders have learned to lead a group of people, organisations. If a person want to learn he can be a successful leader. It takes a education as a process which does not stop, gaining experience and training over years.
A manager can get authorization from a company or a boss which enables him to handle responsibilities and achieve certain goals. Leadership is different, it inspires people, followers and by this a leader is willing to learn more, make higher goals.

Leadership Traits
Leaders have some kind of skills or traits who have been recognised by researchers. These are mentioned on the list below, but this is not a complete list because there are much things that can be written down.
· Strong drive for responsibility,
· Focus on completing the task,
· Vigour and persistence in pursuit of goals,
· Venturesomeness and originality in problem-solving,
· Drive to exercise initiative in social settings,
· Self-confidence,
· Sense of personal identity,
· Willingness to accept consequences of decisions and actions,
· Readiness to adsorb interpersonal stress,
· Willingness to tolerate frustration and delay,
· Ability to influence the behaviour of others,
· Capacity to structure social systems to the purpose in hand.

Being a leader

As a leader you should not tell people what to do, in order to follow you. People should be inspred by a leader, and by that they should want to follow you. They even might want to walk into danger and situations they normally would not do.
Some leaders, or many leaders may have a ‘charismatic style’ and by that people want tot follow them. These leaders do not need a ‘loud’ personality in order to let people follow them, their behaviour who is charismatic will help them.

But leaders who might be good with people are not always friendly with them. Often they might seperate themselfs or be sometimes alone to keep a certain ‘mystique’ arround them.
Doing this it is not said that leaders do not pay attention to tasks or do not want to reach goals. In fact it is the other way arround, they are very achievement-focused. But they know that the important thing is to make people enthousiastic and work towards a vision.

external image action.jpg


//http://obromley.deoss.net/web/content/leadership.htm//

John Adair has developed a leadership model. By this model a leader can see his repsonsibilities and reflect his leadership. How does he deal with tasks, a team or individuals, what needs to be improved or mor slowed down.

Looking for risks

There are also theory’s or studys who show that leaders might look for risks, not just want to get in trouble but following their vision they are willing to take risks. By this they get oppertunities who were not seen by managers and others. Leaders are able or willing to break rules to get things tone. History has shown that quite a lot number of leaders had to deal with handicaps in their live to become lateron a good leader. The handicaps can or could be dyslexia, being shorter than average. By this they have learned to be indepentend of mind, looking forward and think out-of-the-box.
Also as a leader you should get respect, earn it instead of willing to have it. A leader can earn respect by leading people on a moral and ehtical good way, being principled. Listen to the employers, your followers and taking care of their ‘well being’, take time to listen. By this you can provide others a vision of the future which heads towards the good direction.
At last there are two important things about leadership. The first thing is belief and confidence in your leadership. Show the people you belief in yourself, a leader should know what he is, and what he is doeing. A leader should, like said before looking for self-improvement, training himself to get better.
The second thing is to communicate on a effective way, make yourself clear, make the strategy you or the company uses clear, where are you going.






II) Styles of leadership

There are different styles of leadership it is depend on the leader's behavior, on the personality and the experience. There are 3 mains styles : Autocratic, Participative or free rein style.

Before explain the 3 mains styles, we have to know that there are two types of leader :
Formal leadership : the leader has an influence in cause of his authority and his hierarchical position; and abstract leadership : the leader has an influence in cause of personality not in cause of his hierarchical position.



leadershipstyles.png


http://davidpiccione.com/blog/what-is-leadership/

Kurt Lewin identifies different styles of leadership but there are 3 mains styles :

  • Authoritarian style
The leader take all the decisions, it is like a dictature. It is a fast style of leadership. The manager has a big motivation but the rest of the group doesn't take part in any situation. The group knows the decision, often, after his application. There are no initiative from the subordinates.

  • Democratic style (participative)
In a democratic style the leader consult the group before a decision. After the concertation he can take a decision or give some instructions. With this style the leader win the cooperation and the confidence of the group. Also, the group are more motivated because the groupe has a place in the firm and in the decision.

  • Free rein style or “laissez faire”
The leader doesn't lead the group. The group is entirely leaves at itself, they are his own policies and methods. When there is a problem the person who is taking a fast decision in the group is the person with the most experience. This style can demotivate and destroy the group because the group has no one to refer and he has to take all the decision (bad or good). Sometimes the group is lost.

The perfect leader is a combination of the three style of leadership. It is very hard to be the perfect leader we have always a preference for one style.

In this video you will see a new way of leadership : The Leadership triangle. It is a good video with illustration to show a new method. In those day we can find and invent some new method of leadership with creativity and idea generation.





http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aiQI4D9p5I0




III) Shared leadership in practice

external image Vision_Mission.jpg
http://cnx.org/content/m12923/latest/


"Shared leadership has many names including partnership-as-leadership, distributed leadership, and community of leaders." ( http://cnx.org/content/m12923/latest/)

In a leadership it is a time to show your own creativity, how to use a dialogue, coaching skills and giving feedback and then go direct to the high level of standards in collaboration with others. We want to remaind that the responsibility for a job is in both sides leader and a group member. Shared leadership is not cancel the accountable for a job but share a dutys and functions during the work.

The most important factor is a communication. In a theory it sounds easy to manage it, but in practice it shows that there is many problems, people are many times disagree with the existing situation, but it is important to find a one language.

Important is to remember, that everyones are going to the same point, have the same aims, but there is always a person, two or more who has a power to manage that all job for reaching the goals. But the leader is only one in a one teams (there are always some exceptions).

"Shared leadership is a collective undertaking to accomplish a shared vision. Shared leadership requires teamwork but it is deeper because each individual is intentionally working to exert leadership which includes improving his or herself in effective ways so that one's participation and contribution are at their fullest potential." (http://reverbconsulting.blogspot.com/2009/06/what-is-shared-leadership.html)

Shared leadership mean that there is one indyvidual leader, but 'responsibility for problem identification, solutions and action taking' is shared between the right people in a team.

Leaders during the research, are looking for, forward- looking an admire people who are honest, looking forward, inspiring and competent, then with that people they can share a leadership. ('Business Leadership' A Jossey- Bass Reader, 2003, p252)

It is a good way for people, who has a skills to manage a work, but who is scared to take a risk for a project. That concept brings a new way of increasing risk taking and is innovative in a successful company. Shared leadership supports units, who exhibit acts of leadership' between the all team members.





4) Different aspects of leadership


For this last part we are going to deal with different aspects of leadership.

First of all, what Business leadership is?
Is it essential, for a person who plan to be in a management position in the future or who need to have an important role in his company, possessing business leadership skills. This type of leadership helps person to manage every task successfully. This kind of people knows how to delegate jobs, to have good relationship with employees and how to “run a business in the most successful and proficient way possible”. Managers are trained and taught how to handle any situation. With the time, they acquired the business leadership. For instance, a lot of companies offer to their employee classes and seminars in the way to develop their business skills. Employees learn how to be more effective.

handshake_business_leadership.jpg
http://www.leadershipstyle.net

Then, what Leadership coaching means?
As it is written before, some companies engaged professional coaching to develop the skills of their employees. In this way, companies will not pay a new employee a lot, but thanks to these classes they will obtain better employees for the same prices.”Many companies are sending employees to seminars and classes to help them improve their leadership skills”. Leadership coaches help people in many positions not just in a position of power. They learn difference between leading and simply managing and what is the best ways to pass their skills and wisdom on to other people. For example, they are helpful to develop hidden talents which can help them in their jobs. Basically anyone with the right skills and motivation can become a leadership coach; this can open the door for more opportunities in the leadership coaching field.

leadership-coaching.jpg
http://www.leadershipstyle.net
After that, what the difference between leadership and management is? If somebody has one of it aspect, this doesn’t mean that this person has both (leadership and management). “The leadership and the management are both qualities”. In companies, managers are discussing, about leadership and management, to know which part of each quality they already possess and which part they need to work on. It is interesting to know that both of this aspect can come together. “Leadership is defined as the talent to guide”. A real leadership shows and influences others the way to do things. Others will heed leadership’s instructions as advice. “Management is more defined as the talent of handling a task effectively”. The person who possess this skill will done a task right and on time. Mixing management and leadership skills together is the only way to have a homogeneous operation with employees.
Next, what the Situational Leadership is? This is a concept based on a number of factors that can affect the type of leadership that a person or a company can use. There are four types of situational leadership.
  • The first level requires a great deal of direction, simplification of different tasks, and low level of competence and unwillingness of someone to learn. In this case, we need a strong leader to guide and control others members.
  • The second level requires less direction and more persuasion. In this case, the leader will chose friendly approach to encourage the follower who has competence but a lack of motivation.
  • The third level requires a medium level of competency and a poor attitude toward the work at hand. In this case the leader may discover why the follower has a lack of cooperation and motivation.
  • The fourth level is the easiest to accomplish: the leader doesn’t have a real job because the follower is competent and doesn’t need a huge supervision or instruction.

Finally, what the leadership assessment means? In many situations, as in school or in a company, it is important to have a quantifiable way to tell how the team leader is performing. Leadership assessment is important to fire, promote or hand out raises but also to be sure that everyone is living up to their potential and is in the best position to give their own skills. To know how well a person is leading there are several ways. First, you can look at results (“is it completing projects and other tasks to specification and deadline?”). Second you can look at the composure and chemistry of the team (“is their friction in the team?”). Thirdly, you can look at how the leader is utilizing the team. For instance if “the team leader has a member with a degree in finance working on copy and a copywriter working on a budget”.





Conclusion


As much as fields covered by the leadership have evolved, the qualities that define it have multiplied. If the leadership in the past was intimately associated with the leader's personality and especially his charisma, many recent studies suggest a skill that is learned, based on experience and linked to specific contexts.
However, Leadership has to be reinvented. The time when the boss was deciding alone is over.
With the shared Leadership, we can see an opportunity for everyone to stop being a mere observer of his environment and to become an influential player.
The leadership has changed in nature, and admitted management models are less and less relevant.




List of References


I. What is Leadership

COACHING COSMOS, Insights for Coaches, Acceded 01/12/10
http://www.coachingcosmos.com/34.html

Amitabh Shukla, What is leadership? What are the compenents of leadership?Acceded 01/12/10
http://www.paggu.com/entrepreneurship/what-is-leadership-what-are-components-of-effective-leadership/

Richard Bolden, What is leadership?Acceded 01/12/10
http://www.iedc.si/programs/seminars/hrmasterclass/photos/What_is_Leadership.pdf

Leadership vs. Management, Acceded 01/12/10
http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/articles/manager_leader.htm

II. Styles of Leaderhip

David Piccione, What is leadership, Acceded 01/12/10

http://www.davidpiccione.com/blog/what-is-leadership/

Book : C.Doherty, Thompson, Rules of leadership, Acceded 03/12/10

III. Shared Leadership in practice

Angus McNeil, Shared Leadership, Acceded 01/12/10
http://cnx.org/content/m12923/latest/

What is shared leadership? Acceded 01/12/10
http://reverbconsulting.blogspot.com/2009/06/what-is-shared-leadership.html

Peter M.Smith, Shared leadership: New ways of leading, Acceded 01/12/10
http://www.opi-inc.com/shared_leadership.html

Book: 'Business Leadership' A Jossey- Bass Reader, 2003, p252, Acceded 02/12/10

IV. Different aspects of Leadership

Educational leadership, Acceded 01/12/10
http://www.leadershipstyle.net/educational-leadership.html